Facing similar issues to its neighboring countries of rising overweight and obesity rates and shifts in eating patterns towards more sugary drinks and ultra-processed foods, Peru has implemented a set of policies to combat these trends: a sugary drink tax and mandatory front-of-package warning label system (modeled after the Chilean label).
Our evaluation work began before the law was implemented and will continue for 3 years. Our evaluation work has five components to examine:
- Implementation of the FOP warning labels law in Peru. We will use qualitative interviews with key stakeholders to highlight the key facilitators and barriers of the FOP law implementation;
- Changes in the healthfulness of the food supply following introduction of FOP warning labels;
- Changes in mothers’ attitudes towards, knowledge about, and perceptions of unhealthy and healthy foods along with their awareness and usage of FOP warning labels in urban and rural areas;
- Changes in household food purchases of regulated (ie, with warning labels on packages) and unregulated foods and beverages after introduction of the FOP warning labels law, overall and by socio-economic status; and
- Changes in taxed and untaxed beverage purchases after the SSB tax, overall and by socio-economic status. This evaluation will look at both the 2018-19 SSB tax shift and the additional changes implemented in 2019.
Supreme Decree 091-2018-EF | Implemented May 1, 2018
Supreme Decree 091-2018-EF
Prior to May 2018, Peru taxed all beverages with added sugar, sweeteners, or flavorings at a rate of 17%. In May 2018, the tax was increased to 25% for drinks with >6 grams total sugar per 100mL, while all other drinks with added sugar/sweeteners/flavorings (containing <6 g sugar/100 mL) remained at the 17% tax rate.
In June 2019, Peru modified the tax again by decreasing the rate on drinks with <0.5 g sugar/100 mL (e.g., diet sodas) to 12%, while drinks containing 0.5–6 g/100 mL remained at the 17% rate. Plain water, 100% juices, plain milk, and drinkable yogurts were always and remain untaxed.
In sum, from June 2019 onward, processed beverages with added sugar, sweeteners, or flavoring are taxed at one of three levels:
- 25% ad valorem tax on drinks containing >6 g sugar/100 mL (increase from 17% rate)
- 17% ad valorem tax on drinks containing 0.5–6 g sugar/100 mL
- 12% ad valorem tax on drinks containing <0.5 g sugar/100 mL (decrease from 17%)
Exempt: Plain water, 100% juice, plain milk, and drinkable yogurts
Law on the Promotion of a Healthy Diet (Law 30021 / Supreme Decree No. 012-2018-SA) | Implemented June 1, 2019
Decree on Health Warnings on the Promotion of Healthy Eating among Children and Adolescents
- Front-of-package warning labels: Processed foods and beverages with total sugar, saturated fat, or sodium content exceeding set thresholds and/or containing any added trans fats must carry black octagon “stop sign” warning labels for each nutrient in excess of thresholds.
- Inclusion of warnings in other media:
- Ads with fixed and moving images will carry warnings.
- Radio and audiovisual media: warnings must be clearly, prominently and understandably recorded.
November 2017 (also available in Spanish)
Kline L, Jones-Smith J, Jaime Miranda J, Pratt M, Reis RS, Rivera JA, Sallis JF, Popkin BM. A research agenda to guide progress on childhood obesity prevention in Latin America. Obesity Review. 2017 Jul;18 Suppl 2:19-27 view full text
Corvalán C, Garmendia ML, Jones-Smith J, Lutter CK, Miranda JJ, Pedraza LS, Popkin BM, Ramirez-Zea M, Salvo D, Stein AD. Nutrition status of children in Latin America. Obesity Reviews. 2017 Jul;18 Suppl 2:7-18. view full text