Peru

Facing similar issues to its neighboring countries of rising overweight and obesity rates and shifts in eating patterns towards more sugary drinks and ultra-processed foods, Peru has implemented a set of policies to combat these trends: a sugary drink tax and mandatory front-of-package warning label system (modeled after the Chilean label).

Our evaluation work began before the law was implemented and will continue for 3 years. Our evaluation work has five components to examine:

  1. Implementation of the FOP warning labels law in Peru. We will use qualitative interviews with key stakeholders to highlight the key facilitators and barriers of the FOP law implementation;
  2. Changes in the healthfulness of the food supply following introduction of FOP warning labels;
  3. Changes in mothers’ attitudes towards, knowledge about, and perceptions of unhealthy and healthy foods along with their awareness and usage of FOP warning labels in urban and rural areas;
  4. Changes in household food purchases of regulated (ie, with warning labels on packages) and unregulated foods and beverages after introduction of the FOP warning labels law, overall and by socio-economic status; and
  5. Changes in taxed and untaxed beverage purchases after the SSB tax, overall and by socio-economic status. This evaluation will look at both the 2018-19 SSB tax shift and the additional changes implemented in 2019.

Policies

Supreme Decree 091-2018-EF | Implemented May 1, 2018

Supreme Decree 091-2018-EF

Prior to May 2018, Peru taxed all beverages with added sugar, sweeteners, or flavorings at a rate of 17%. In May 2018, the tax was increased to 25% for drinks with >6 grams total sugar per 100mL, while all other drinks with added sugar/sweeteners/flavorings (containing <6 g sugar/100 mL) remained at the 17% tax rate.

In June 2019, Peru modified the tax again by decreasing the rate on drinks with <0.5 g sugar/100 mL (e.g., diet sodas) to 12%, while drinks containing 0.5–6 g/100 mL remained at the 17% rate. Plain water, 100% juices, plain milk, and drinkable yogurts were always and remain untaxed.

In sum, from June 2019 onward, processed beverages with added sugar, sweeteners, or flavoring are taxed at one of three levels:

  • 25% ad valorem tax on drinks containing >6 g sugar/100 mL (increase from 17% rate)
  • 17% ad valorem tax on drinks containing 0.5–6 g sugar/100 mL
  • 12% ad valorem tax on drinks containing <0.5 g sugar/100 mL (decrease from 17%)

Exempt: Plain water, 100% juice, plain milk, and drinkable yogurts

Read law in: English, 2018 | English, 2019

Law on the Promotion of a Healthy Diet (Law 30021 / Supreme Decree No. 012-2018-SA) | Implemented June 1, 2019

Decree on Health Warnings on the Promotion of Healthy Eating among Children and Adolescents

  • Front-of-package warning labels: Processed foods and beverages with total sugar, saturated fat, or sodium content exceeding set thresholds and/or containing any added trans fats must carry black octagon “stop sign” warning labels for each nutrient in excess of thresholds.
  • Inclusion of warnings in other media:
    • Ads with fixed and moving images will carry warnings.
    • Radio and audiovisual media: warnings must be clearly, prominently and understandably recorded.
Peru Warning Labels

In-Country Team Leads

Resources

  • Front-of-package labeling

    Map FOP Labels ThumbnailGlobal maps showing mandatory and voluntary front-of-package labeling schemes used in countries around the world. Includes map highlighting countries with front-of-package warning label policies.

    Updated August 2022

    August 2022: Added Argentina label designs (implemented August 20, 2022); corrected UK traffic light label image

    July 2022 addition: Canada (mandatory warning label law passed)

    February 2022 additions: Argentina (mandatory warning label law passed); Singapore (hybrid mandatory/voluntary Nutri-Grade label passed); Venezuela (mandatory octagonal warning label passed); existing voluntary labels in China, Indonesia, South Africa, Zambia, Zimbabwe

  • Restrictions on marketing food to children

    Map Marketing ThumbnailGlobal map showing countries with national-level, mandatory regulations related to food and beverage marketing to children. This resource also includes a chart comparing policy coverage across countries and more detailed description of limits on TV advertising.

    Updated May 2022

  • Sugary drink taxes

    Map SSB Taxes ThumbnailGlobal maps showing countries and smaller jurisdictions with taxes on sugary beverages that were implemented with a goal of curbing sugar consumption and improving public health. Included are brief descriptions of each tax structure and dates of passage or implementation.

    Updated November 2022

    November 2022: Added Colombia (newly passed, not yet implemented), updated Hungary

    May 2022: Updated Barbados tax (doubled to 20% in April 2022)

    February 2022: Added Israel and Nigeria (newly implemented); Cook Islands, French Polynesia, Marshall Islands, New Caledonia, Niue, Northern Mariana Islands, Tuvalu, and Wallis and Futuna (existing, newly added)

  • Front-of-package labeling

    FOP Fact Sheet ThumbnailFact sheet describing how front-of-package (FOP) labels can help consumers make informed, healthier choices and encourage industry to improve the nutritional profile of their products and portfolios. Learn about the evidence for different FOP labels, what types of labels are in use around the world today, and key elements to consider when developing and implementing an effective FOP labelling policy.

    Updated October 2021

  • Letter of global support for Peruvian front-of-package labeling regulations

    November 2017 (also available in Spanish)

Publications

  • A research agenda to guide progress on childhood obesity prevention in Latin America
    Authors: Kline L, Jones-Smith J, Jaime Miranda J, Pratt M, Reis RS, Juan A. Rivera, Sallis JF, Barry M. Popkin.
    Published in: Obesity Reviews, July 2017 view full text

  • Nutrition status of children in Latin America
    Authors: Corvalán C, Garmendia ML, Jones-Smith J, Lutter CK, Miranda JJ, Lilia S. Pedraza, Barry M. Popkin, Ramirez-Zea M, Salvo D, Stein AD.
    Published in: Obesity Reviews, July 2017 view full text