Facing similar issues to its neighboring countries of rising overweight and obesity rates and shifts in eating patterns towards more sugary drinks and ultra-processed foods, Peru has implemented a set of policies to combat these trends: a sugary drink tax and mandatory front-of-package warning label system (modeled after the Chilean label).
Our evaluation work began before the law was implemented and will continue for 3 years. Our evaluation work has five components to examine:
- Implementation of the FOP warning labels law in Peru. We will use qualitative interviews with key stakeholders to highlight the key facilitators and barriers of the FOP law implementation;
- Changes in the healthfulness of the food supply following introduction of FOP warning labels;
- Changes in mothers’ attitudes towards, knowledge about, and perceptions of unhealthy and healthy foods along with their awareness and usage of FOP warning labels in urban and rural areas;
- Changes in household food purchases of regulated (ie, with warning labels on packages) and unregulated foods and beverages after introduction of the FOP warning labels law, overall and by socio-economic status; and
- Changes in taxed and untaxed beverage purchases after the SSB tax, overall and by socio-economic status. This evaluation will look at both the 2018-19 SSB tax shift and the additional changes implemented in 2019.
Supreme Decree 091-2018-EF | Implemented May 1, 2018
Supreme Decree 091-2018-EF
Prior to May 2018, Peru taxed all beverages with added sugar, sweeteners, or flavorings at a rate of 17%. In May 2018, the tax was increased to 25% for drinks with >6 grams total sugar per 100mL, while all other drinks with added sugar/sweeteners/flavorings (containing <6 g sugar/100 mL) remained at the 17% tax rate.
In June 2019, Peru modified the tax again by decreasing the rate on drinks with <0.5 g sugar/100 mL (e.g., diet sodas) to 12%, while drinks containing 0.5–6 g/100 mL remained at the 17% rate. Plain water, 100% juices, plain milk, and drinkable yogurts were always and remain untaxed.
In sum, from June 2019 onward, processed beverages with added sugar, sweeteners, or flavoring are taxed at one of three levels:
- 25% ad valorem tax on drinks containing >6 g sugar/100 mL (increase from 17% rate)
- 17% ad valorem tax on drinks containing 0.5–6 g sugar/100 mL
- 12% ad valorem tax on drinks containing <0.5 g sugar/100 mL (decrease from 17%)
Exempt: Plain water, 100% juice, plain milk, and drinkable yogurts
Read law in: English, 2018 | English, 2019
Law on the Promotion of a Healthy Diet (Law 30021 / Supreme Decree No. 012-2018-SA) | Implemented June 1, 2019
Decree on Health Warnings on the Promotion of Healthy Eating among Children and Adolescents
- Front-of-package warning labels: Processed foods and beverages with total sugar, saturated fat, or sodium content exceeding set thresholds and/or containing any added trans fats must carry black octagon “stop sign” warning labels for each nutrient in excess of thresholds.
- Inclusion of warnings in other media:
- Ads with fixed and moving images will carry warnings.
- Radio and audiovisual media: warnings must be clearly, prominently and understandably recorded.
In-Country Research Partner
In-Country Team Leads
- Jaime Miranda - Director, PI, CRONICAS, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia
- Francisco Diez-Canseco - Associate Investigator, Co-PI, CRONICAS, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia
- Lorena Maria Saavedra Garcia - Project Coordinator, CRONICAS, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia
GFRP Team Leads
Taxes on unhealthy foods and beverages
Global maps showing countries and smaller jurisdictions with taxes on sugary or sweetened beverages and/or unhealthy foods, that were implemented with a goal of curbing sugar, salt, saturated or trans fat, and excessive calorie consumption and improving public health. Included are brief descriptions of each tax structure and dates of passage or implementation.
Series of maps showing interpretive labels used on food and beverage packages around around the world. These maps feature national-level, mandatory front-of-package labeling policies as well as government-endorsed voluntary labels. This resource includes a map highlighting countries with front-of-package warning label policies.
Restrictions on marketing food to children
Global map showing countries with national-level, mandatory policies aimed at protecting children from harmful marketing for unhealthy foods or beverages by limiting children’s exposure to marketing and/or by limiting the persuasive power of food marketing via restrictions on the use of certain creative marketing techniques. This resource includes a chart comparing policy scope in each country and more details on limits to television advertising.
Fact sheet describing how front-of-package (FOP) labels can help consumers make informed, healthier choices and encourage industry to improve the nutritional profile of their products and portfolios. Learn about the evidence for different FOP labels, what types of labels are in use around the world today, and key elements to consider when developing and implementing an effective FOP labelling policy.
Updated October 2021
Letter of global support for Peruvian front-of-package labeling regulations
November 2017 (also available in Spanish)
Employment and wage effects of sugar-sweetened beverage taxes and front-of-package warning label regulations on the food and beverage industry: Evidence from Peru
Authors: Juan-José Díaz, Alan Sánchez, Francisco Diez-Canseco, J. Jaime Miranda, Barry
Published in: Food Policy, January 20, 2023 view full text
Reformulation of top-selling processed and ultra-processed foods and beverages in the Peruvian food supply after front-of-package warning label policy
Authors: Lorena Saavedra-Garcia, Mayra Meza-Hernández, Francisco Diez-Canseco, Lindsey Smith Taillie
Published in: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, December 27, 2022 view full text
Sugar-sweetened beverage purchases in urban Peru before the implementation of taxation and warning label policies: a baseline study
Authors: Caitlin M. Lowery, Lorena Saavedra-Garcia, Francisco Diez-Canseco, María Kathia Cárdenas, J. Jaime Miranda, Lindsey Smith Taillie
Published in: BMC Public Health, December 20, 2022 view full text
A research agenda to guide progress on childhood obesity prevention in Latin America
Authors: Kline L, Jones-Smith J, Jaime Miranda J, Pratt M, Reis RS, Juan A. Rivera, Sallis JF, Barry M. Popkin.
Published in: Obesity Reviews, July 2017 view full text
Nutrition status of children in Latin America
Authors: Corvalán C, Garmendia ML, Jones-Smith J, Lutter CK, Miranda JJ, Lilia S. Pedraza, Barry M. Popkin, Ramirez-Zea M, Salvo D, Stein AD.
Published in: Obesity Reviews, July 2017 view full text